Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 321, 3 (2021). doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00071.2021
PubMed ID: 34338041
Abstract: Carbohydrates and sweeteners are detected by the sweet taste receptor in enteroendocrine cells (EECs). This receptor is coupled to the gustducin G-protein, which α-subunit is encoded by GNAT3 gene. In intestine, the activation of sweet taste receptor triggers a signaling pathway leading to GLP-1 secretion, an incretin hormone. In metabolic diseases, GLP-1 concentration and incretin effect are reduced while partly restored after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We wondered if the decreased GLP-1 secretion in metabolic diseases is caused by an intestinal defect in sweet taste transduction pathway. In our RNA-sequencing of EECs, GNAT3 expression is decreased in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes compared with normoglycemic obese patients. This prompted us to explore sweet taste signaling pathway in mice with metabolic deteriorations. During obesity onset in mice, Gnat3 expression was downregulated in EECs. After metabolic improvement with enterogastro anastomosis surgery in mice (a surrogate of the RYGB in humans), the expression of Gnat3 increased in the new alimentary tract and glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion was improved. To evaluate if high-fat diet-induced dysbiotic intestinal microbiota could explain the changes in the expression of sweet taste α-subunit G-protein, we performed a fecal microbiota transfer in mice. However, we could not conclude if dysbiotic microbiota impacted or not intestinal Gnat3 expression. Our data highlight that metabolic disorders were associated with altered gene expression of sweet taste signaling in intestine. This could contribute to impaired GLP-1 secretion that is partly rescued after metabolic improvement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our data highlighted 1) the sweet taste transduction pathway in EECs plays pivotal role for glucose homeostasis at least at gene expression level; 2) metabolic disorders lead to altered gene expression of sweet taste signaling pathway in intestine contributing to impaired GLP-1 secretion; and 3) after surgical intestinal modifications, increased expression of GNAT3, encoding α-gustducin contributed to metabolic improvement.
Keywords: intestinal endocrine cells; microbiota; obesity; type 2 diabetes; α-gustducin.