Diabetes. 2020 Sep 29:db200647. doi: 10.2337/db20-0647.
PubMed ID: 32994277
Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance (IR) and its attendant complications. The pathogenic mechanisms linking them remain poorly understood, partly due to a lack of intermediary monogenic human phenotypes. Here, we report on a monogenic form of IR-prone obesity, Alström syndrome (ALMS). Twenty-three subjects with monogenic or polygenic obesity underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamping with concomitant adipose tissue (AT) microdialysis and an in-depth analysis of subcutaneous AT histology. We have shown a relative adipose tissue failure in monogenic obese cohort; a finding supported by observations in a novel conditional mouse model (Almsflin/flin) and ALMS1-silenced human primary adipocytes. Whereas, selective reactivation of ALMS1 gene in adipose tissue of an ALMS conditional knockdown mice model (Almsflin/flin;Adipo-Cre+/-) restores systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Hence, we show for the first time the relative adipose tissue failure in human obese cohorts to be a major determinant of accelerated IR without evidence of lipodystrophy. These new insights into adipocyte driven insulin resistance may assist development of adipose tissue targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes.