Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 15;10(1):9624. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-66598-2.
PubMed ID: 32541680
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drastically affects the population of Middle East countries with an ever-increasing number of overweight and obese individuals. The precise links between T2DM and gut microbiome composition remain elusive in these populations. Here, we performed 16 S rRNA and ITS2- gene based microbial profiling of 50 stool samples from Emirati adults with or without T2DM. The four major enterotypes initially described in westernized cohorts were retrieved in this Emirati population. T2DM and non-T2DM healthy controls had different microbiome compositions, with an enrichment in Prevotella enterotype in non-T2DM controls whereas T2DM individuals had a higher proportion of the dysbiotic Bacteroides 2 enterotype. No significant differences in microbial diversity were observed in T2DM individuals after controlling for cofounding factors, contrasting with reports from westernized cohorts. Interestingly, fungal diversity was significantly decreased in Bacteroides 2 enterotype. Functional profiling from 16 S rRNA gene data showed marked differences between T2DM and non-T2DM controls, with an enrichment in amino acid degradation and LPS-related modules in T2DM individuals, whereas non-T2DM controls had increased abundance of carbohydrate degradation modules in concordance with enterotype composition. These differences provide an insight into gut microbiome composition in Emirati population and its potential role in the development of diabetes mellitus.